© 1999 James A. Fowler

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I. Word studies

    A. English word "sex" is derived from Latin sexus, "to divide"
         1. God divided humanity into two sexes or genders - male and female
              Gen. 1:27 - "male and female He created them"
         2. Sexuality involves
              a. recognition of gender distinction
                   (1) masculinity (cf. outline on "masculinity")
                   (2) femininity (cf. outline on "femininity")
              b. personal development and acceptance of gender identity
                   (1) development of personal concept of sexual/gender identity as sexual/gender being.
                   (2) draw or attraction to involvement with others
         3. Sexual acts inevitably express one's sexual/gender identity
              a. God-given drives and desires (?)
              b. hormonal impulses
    B. Hebrew words and expressions relating to sexuality and sexual expression
         1. Heb. zakar and neqebah - "male" and "female"
              Gen. 1:27 - "male and female He created them"
         2. Heb. ish and ishah - "man" and "woman"
              Gen. 2:23 - "she shall be called Woman, because taken out of man"
         3. Heb. words arom, erom, erwa -"nakedness" -Gen. 3:7; Lev. 18:6-23
              Gen. 2:25 - "were naked and were not ashamed"
         4. Heb. basar - "body parts"
              Exod. 28:42 - "breeches to cover their bare flesh"
              Lev. 15:19 - "discharge in her body"
         5. Heb. yada - "to know" (euphemism for sexual intercourse)
              Gen. 4:1,25 - "the man knew his wife Eve, and she conceived..."
         6. Heb. ahab - "to love"
              I Kings 11:1 - "King Solomon loved many foreign women"
         7. Heb. bo - "go in to"
              Prov. 6:29 - "one who goes in to his neighbor's wife"
         8. Heb. shakab - "to lie with"
              Gen. 19:33,35 - "go in and lie with him"
         9. Heb. echad basar - "one flesh"
              Gen. 2:24 - "they shall become one flesh"
        10. Heb. dabaq - "join, cling, cleave"
              Gen. 2:24 - "cleave to his wife"
    C. Greek words and expressions relating to sexuality and sexual expression
        1. Gk. words arsen and thelu - "male and female" (Mk. 10:6)
              Gal. 3:28 - "neither male nor female; all are one in Christ Jesus"
         2. Gk. words aner and gune - "man" and "woman"
              Matt. 14:21 - "five thousand men, plus women and children"
         3. Gk. word aschemona - "unpresentable parts"
              I Cor. 12:23 - "our unpresentable parts have more propriety"
         4. Gk. word ginosko - "to know"
              Lk. 1:34 - "how can this be, since I know no man?"
         5. Gk. word koite - "to conceive," "marriage bed" (get Eng. "coitus")
              Rom. 9:10 - Rebekah conceived twins by one man, Isaac"
              Rom. 13:13 - "behave not in sexual promiscuity and sensuality"
              Heb. 13:4 - "let the marriage bed be undefiled"
         6. Gk. word kallao - "to be joined"
              I Cor. 6:16 - "one who joins himself to a harlot is one body with her"
         7. Gk. word skeuos - "vessel"
              I Pet. 3:7 - "live with wives, as with a weaker vessel" ("sex"-RSV)
         8. Gk. word porneia - "immorality" (get Eng. "porno")
              I Thess. 4:3 - "abstain from sexual immorality"
         9. Gk. word aselgeia - "sensuality"
              Eph. 4:19 - "having given themselves over to sensuality"
        10. Gk. word akatharsia - "impurity"
              I Thess. 4:7 - "God has not called us for purpose of impurity"

II. Historical survey of sexuality

    A. God's created intent for sexuality
         1. Male and female, equal image-bearers of God - Gen. 1:26,27
         2. Sexual intercourse and conception, undistorted by sin - Gen. 1:28,31
         3. Biological and social counterparts and complements - Gen. 2:18,20
         4. Monogamous relationship of marriage - Gen. 2:24
         5. Commitment to unity in marriage - Gen. 2:24
         6. Physical exposure without shame - Gen. 2:25
    B. Distortion of sexuality in the fall of man
         1. Gender dominance - cf. Gen. 3:16
              a. women regarded as property
              b. women valued primarily for procreative ability
              c. women subjugated to perform at husband's whim
         2. Sexual distortion
              a. shame in physical exposure - Gen. 3:10
              b. sex viewed as mechanical act
              c. tolerance of male extra-marital sexual liaisons
              d. sex deified in pagan religions (Artemis, Diana, Aphrodite)
         3. Marital disintegration
              a. marriage seen as convenience, expedience, social propriety
              b. divorce at male prerogative
              c. polygamous marriages
    C. Reorientation of sexuality in Jesus Christ
         1. Gender equanimity and respect
              a. equality of male and female - Gal. 3:28; I Pet. 3:7
              b. women not to be regarded as "sex objects" - Matt. 5:28,29
              c. women not to be reduced to reproductive role; child-bearing not necessary basis for                    female gender fulfillment
              d. accommodation to cultural gender roles - I Cor. 11:3-16;
                   Eph. 5:21-33; Col. 3:18; Titus 2:1-5; I Pet. 3:1-8
         2. Sexual sanction
              a. repudiation of sexual double-standards - Jn. 7:53 - 8:11
              b. sexual expression in marriage is undefiling - Heb. 13:4
              c. sexuality is not divorced from spirituality - I Cor. 6:16,17
                  (1) sexual expression not governed by external laws, morals, values, virtues, standards
                  (2) internalized, spiritual basis of expressing character of God - love, purity, faithfulness,
                        loyalty, relational, intimacy, oneness, commitment, respect, openness, vulnerability,
                        availability, visibility, creativity
                  (3) sexual expression involves the whole person, not just physical stimulation;
                        Christ in you engages in sexual expression
              d. celebration of sexuality in marriage - desire, attraction, delight, enjoyment, playfulness
                  (cf. Sng of Sol; Prov 5:18,19)
         3. Marital mutuality (cf. outline on "marriage")
              a. option of marriage or singleness - Matt. 19:10-12; I Cor. 7:7-9; 33,34,50;
                       celibacy not a duty
              b. covenantal basis of marriage
              c. freedom of marital/sexual choices - I Tim. 4:4
              d. mutuality of marital rights and expression - I Cor. 7:3-5
              e. marital partnership; not hierarchical control

III. Evaluations of sexual attitudes and actions

    A. Immorality - sexual intercourse outside of the God-ordained context for such between one
         man and one woman in marriage. (I Cor. 6:13,18; Eph. 5:3; Col. 3:5; I Thess. 4:3);
         (cf. outline on "immorality")
    B. Fornication - sexual intercourse with unmarried partner outside of God's covenantal basis of          marriage relationships. (Exod. 22:16; Deut. 22:28,29; Heb. 13:4)
    C. Adultery - sexual intercourse with betrothed or married person other than own spouse,
         contrary to the faithfulness and loyalty of God's character. (Exod. 20:14; Prov. 2:16-19;
         Matt. 5:27,28; Rom. 13:9)
    D. Prostitution - sexual activities for hire, outside of God's Grace giving of oneself to another.          (Prov. 5:1-6; 7:6-23; I Cor. 6:16)
    E. Rape - involuntary or forced sexual activity, contrary to God's respect of freedom of choice.          (Deut. 22:25,28,29; II Sam. 13:14). Spousal?
    F. Incest - sexual activity with family relations, contrary to familial respect and honor that God          intends. (Lev. 18:6-18; 20:10-21; II Sam. 13; I Cor. 5:1)
    G. Homosexuality - sexual activity with same sex, contrary to natural function between male and          female. (Lev. 18:22; 20:13; Rom. 1:26; I Cor. 6:9; I Tim. 1:10; Jude 7); (cf. outline on          "homosexuality")
    H. Sodomy - non-coital intercourse, usually associated with forced assault and homosexuality,          contrary to free choice and natural function. (Gen. 19:4-9; Jude 7)
    I. Bestiality - sexual activity with animals, contrary to God's intent for such in personal human          relationships. (Lev. 18:23; 20:15,16)
    J. Transvestitism - dressing and playing the role of the opposite sex, contrary to natural function.          (Deut. 22:5); transsexuality; sex alterations (chromosomal, psychological; hermaphrodite
    K. Masturbation - sexual self-stimulation, being non-relational cannot satisfy God's intent for          sexual expression. (?Gen. 38:8-10; Lev. 15:16; 22:4)
    L. Wet dreams - involuntary seminal emissions (Deut. 23:10)
    M. Pornography - graphic portrayal of sexual acts. Artificial trivialization of sexuality. Devalues,          dehumanizes, exploits. Idealizes, glamorizes. Cheap substitute; voyeurism, peeping Tom, peep          shows
    N. Lust - desire to engage in sexual activities, often fantasizing, scheming, planning to possess or          use another as object outside of legitimate marital relationship. (Matt. 5:28)
    O. Sadism/masochism - sexual activities involves domination, abuse, violence, humiliation which
         are destructive and dehumanizing, substituting pain for genuine sexual relationship in
         gentleness and kindness.
    P. Sexual abuse - to engage another in sexual activity by taking advantage or forcing another on          basis of gender, age, size, knowledge, position, authority, etc.; alleged repressed memories of          abuse
    Q. Sexual addiction - uncontrolled, obsession, compulsion in sexual thoughts or actions. Such          preoccupation becomes idolatry. Associated with "fleshly desires" and "besetting sin"
         (Rom. 13:14; Gal. 5:16; Heb. 12:1)
    R. Sexual fetishes - fixation on objects (ex. clothing), activities, body parts; paedophilia,
    S. Sexual performance - evaluating sexual activity on false bases of sexual technique, pleasure,          simultaneous orgasms, etc.; quantitative evaluation, sexual frequency
    T. Sexual manipulation or control - power-plays of coercion or deprivation to control sexual          partner, failing to appreciate that love defers, is available to the other, and recognizes the
         mystery of differing needs and desires.
    U. Sexual harassment - unsolicited sexual advances, overtures, innuendoes toward another.
    V. Sexism - one gender attempting to dominate, rule or subjugate other gender into submission or          subordination. History of male domination; recent history of radical feminism.
    W. Sexual denial or inhibition - aversion, unwillingness to admit sexual identity or needs, or
          engage in sexual activities, even in proper context. May be due to identification of sexuality
          with sin, shame, evil; may be caused by guilt.
    X. Nudity - naked exposure of physical body. Contextual considerations (marriage, locker room,          beach); religious attitudes; cultural considerations. Art, movies, etc.
    Y. Sexual identity - understanding and acceptance of oneself as male or female sexual being.
    Z. Sexually transmitted diseases - ex. syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, HIV
    AA. Contraception - to hinder conception - coitus interruptus (withdrawal - Gen. 38:8-10),
           rhythm, condom, diaphragm, oral (pill), spermicidal substances, transdermal, injection,
           time-release hypodermal implantation, I.U.D., RU486, sterilization (vasectomy, tubal ligation)

IV. Christian approach to sex, sexuality and sexual acts

    A. Acceptance of God's forgiveness in Jesus Christ for all sexual improprieties
         1. overcome destructive consequences of guilt, remorse, diminished personal concept,               depression, panic, phobias, inhibitions, aversions, self-destructive behaviors.
         2. confession of sins and receipt of God's forgiveness, cleansing, healing, and restoration
    B. Development of Christian sexual identity
         1. Christ in you as male or female sexual being
         2. Christ in you lived out in sexual expression
    C. Recognition of the grace of God in Jesus Christ for all sexual expression
         1. sexuality controlled by Holy Spirit - Eph. 5:18; Gal. 5:23
         2. character of God evidenced in all sexual expression - love, purity, faithfulness, loyalty,               personal, relational, intimacy, oneness, commitment, respect, openness, vulnerability,               availability, visibility, creativity



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