© 1999 James A. Fowler

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I. Biblical statements

    Ps. 16:7 - "I will bless the Lord who has counseled me"
    Ps. 73:24 - "With Thy counsel Thou wilt guide me"
    Prov. 11:14; 24:6 - "in abundance of counselors there is victory"
    Prov. 12:15 - "a wise man is he who listens to counsel"
    Prov. 19:20,21 - "listen to counsel and accept discipline...The counsel of the Lord, it will stand"
    Isa. 9:6 - "His name will be called wonderful Counselor..."
    John 14:16 - "I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper"
          (RSV, NIV - "Counselor". Greek word paraklesis - "to come alongside to encourage")
    John 14:26 - "the Helper, the Holy Spirit, will teach you all things"
    John 15:26 - "When the Helper comes, He will bear witness of Me"
    John 16:7 - "the Helper,...I will send Him to you"
    Rom. 12:8 - "he who exhorts, in His exhortation"
    Rom. 15:4 - "through the encouragement of the Scriptures, we might have hope"
    Rom. 15:14 - "able also to admonish one another"
    II Cor. 1:4 - "able to comfort those who are in any affliction"
    Gal. 6:1 - "you who are spiritual, restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness"
    Col. 1:28 - "admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, that we might
        present every man complete in Christ"
    I Thess. 5:11 - "encourage one another, and build up one another"
    I Thess. 5:14 - "admonish the unruly, encourage the fainthearted..."
    Heb. 3:13 - "encourage one another day after day"
    Heb. 10:25 - "encouraging one another"

II. Historical background leading up to modern counseling emphasis.

    A. Development of psychology as academic field of study
         1. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
         2. Carl Jung (1875-1961)
         3. First degree program in psychology. 1870 in Germany.
         4. Carl Rogers - On Becoming a Person - 1961.
    B. Early integration of psychology in the church.
         1. Franz Delitzsch - System of Biblical Psychology - 1869
         2. Liberal acceptance of psychological premises. Harry Fosdick.
         3. Wayne Oates - 1950s - Protestant Pastoral Counseling
4. Paul Tournier - The Meaning of Persons -
         5. Henry Brandt - The Struggle for Peace - 1965
         6. Raymond Cramer -The Psychology of Jesus and Mental Health - 1959.
         7. Oswald Chambers - Biblical Psychology - 1962.
         8. Howard Clinebell - Basic Types of Pastoral Counseling - 1966.
         9. Frank Lake - Clinical Theology - 1966.
    C. Evangelical Christian counseling movement.
         1. Clyde and Bruce Narramore - The Psychology of Counseling
2. Gary Collins - Psychology and Theology - 1981 (Trinity)
         3. H. Norman Wright - Marital Counseling (Talbot)
         4. Jay Adams - Competent to Counsel. "Nouthetic counseling" (Westminster) Also Wayne
             Mack, David Powlison
         5. James Dobson - Dare to Discipline. (Focus on Family)
         6. Charles Solomon - Counseling with the Mind of Christ. "Spirituotherapy." Also Bill
         7. Larry Crabb - Principles of Biblical Counseling. (Grace) Institute of Biblical Counseling.
         8. Frank Minirth, Paul Meier - Happiness is a Choice. (Dallas) Also John Townsend, Robert
             Hemfelt, Henry Cloud, Richard Fowler.
         9. Robert McGee, Pat Springle - The Search For Significance. Rapha.
        10. Stephen Arterburn - Growing Up Addicted. New Life Treatment Centers. Also David
             Stoop, Jack Felton, Tim Timmons.
        11. William Backus - Telling the Truth to Troubled People. Lutheran.
        12. Neil Anderson - The Bondage Breaker. (Talbot)
        13. Others: Lewis Smedes, Archibald Hart, Donald Sloat, Gary Smalley, Charles Swindoll,
             James Mallory, Maurice Wagner, Bill Gothard, Rich Buhler, Tim LaHaye, Florence Littauer,

III. Concerns about counseling movement.

    A. Humanistic premises of secular psychology. Must avoid over-reaction of aversion to
    B. Eclecticism, integration, adaptation of theology and psychology. Jumping on band-wagon of
        12 step, victimization, codependency, etc.
    C. Professionalizing of Christian counseling. Mercenary motives?
    D. Counsel of men rather than God?
    E. Critical voices
         1. Martin & Diedre Bobgan - Psychoheresy. Against Biblical Counseling; For the Bible.
2. William K. Kilpatrick - Psychological Seduction.
         3. Paul Vitz - Psychology as Religion.
4. Thomas Szasz - The Myth of Psychotherapy.
5. Clinton McLemore - The Scandal of Psychotherapy.

IV. Consideration of Christian counsel.

    A. Spirit of Christ is the Counselor - Isa. 9:6; John 14:16,26.
    B. Scriptural basis of determining God's will and ways. II Tim. 3:16.
    C. Sin is the basis of human problems. Rom. 3:23.
    D. All persons affected by past patterning of sin - "flesh" - Gal. 5:17.
    E. Human behavior is derivative in spirit, soul and body - I Thess. 5:23.
    F. Christians are enabled to behave differently by dependence upon Jesus Christ - Col. 1:27.
    G. Christians should encourage one another to love, fellowship, growth, holiness, prayer, etc. -
         Heb. 10:25.
    H. Christian counsel can serve evangelistic purpose - Matt. 28:19,20.



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